Tuesday, August 31, 2010

BASIC CONCEPTS SKRGM (Microwave Radio Communications System)

Microwave arrangement is additionally alleged Radio Relay Terresterial system, for use Captive or Relay Arrangement and its actuality from one breadth to addition breadth breadth Terresterial is one of the important manual average in a accessible advice network.

SYSTEM LOS (Line Of Sight)

In LOS systems Radio beachcomber emitted from a transmitter antenna to receiver antenna through chargeless amplitude in a position to be on a band with no obstructions.

Space beachcomber advancement in LOS systems will acquaintance some accident of energy, amid others:

a) Caused by the advance of the transmitter antenna, which is almost actual baby bulk so that in the calculations ignore.

b) Due to the abrasion forth reabatan frequently alleged the Chargeless Amplitude Accident or frequently accepted as FSL.

c) Due to the damping due to the access of the weather.


The antenna is a accessory acclimated to move the electromagnetic after-effects from the agriculturalist and carnality versa. Agriculturalist in catechism is a coaxial cable or waveguide. An antenna can be as a transmitter or receiver antenna at the aforementioned time.

The alternative is usually based on those antenna impedance, polarization, gain, and axle pattern. For the accord of point to point antennas commonly acclimated with a accretion as aerial as possible, while for point to multipoint depending on advantage area. For radio transmitters are usually directed to all accumbent directions, while for vertical administration abolished.

Satellite dishes are broadly acclimated in earthbound bake advice systems and accessory communications systems that accomplish on the adjustment of gigahertz abundance operation because it has aerial accretion (about 40 to 55 dB).

Parabolic antenna consists of two capital parts, namely:

Paraboloid reflector

Antenna accumulation is usually a horn antenna (feed horn)

Characteristics of Radio Manual Arrangement Application earthbound GMD

Terrestrial radio manual systems application agenda bake has the afterward characteristics:

▪ advancement of radio after-effects through amplitude abreast Earth, so the aisle advancement LOS (Line Of Sight) or the chargeless aisle of view. This agency that the antenna transmitter and receiver antennas charge be aural one band of sight, not hindered by the barriers (obstacles)

▪ In general, assignment on bounded VHF (Very Aerial Frequency) or college such as the SHF.

▪ multichannel transmission, accustomed a cardinal of channels of information.

▪ radio beachcomber advancement is afflicted by amplitude abrasion and assimilation by particles in space.

▪ Manual with accentuation digital.Kelebihan and weaknesses GMD


Easy abundant in administering aliment at the base because the sender, receiver, and repeater.

PERPU risks airish by abashed manual media almost baby back compared with optical cilia that every moment is decumbent to collisions, animal activities, etc..


▪ In the antecedent installation, GMD requires expensive.

Placement ▪ base - the base is afflicted by altitude, location, and geographic conditions. This is afflicted by the use of actual aerial abundance (GHz), breadth the abundance of these altitude crave LOS (Line Of Sight) amid the sender and almsman to be able to acquaint with anniversary other.

Digital Trans Sulawesi), whereby anniversary radio approach to address the baseband agenda arresting with a acceleration of 140 Mbps, agnate to 1920 articulation channels and formed on the angle frequencies up to 7.1 Ghz 6.4.


Multiplexing is a action of amalgamation assorted channels or approach the chat into one accession in the anatomy of signals to be broadcast accompanying after advancing anniversary other. This action occurs in several genitalia of the manual arrangement delivery. On the receiver ancillary Demultiplexing action occurs, ie a action of atomization of re-fill the manual approach into assorted channels based on conversations with the source. Accessory or accessories acclimated to action multiplexed multiplexer-demultiplexer demultiplexing named.

Based on its level, Circuitous can be disconnected into two parts, namely:

Plesiochronous Digital Bureaucracy (PDH)

Synchronous Digital Bureaucracy (SDH)

Plesiochronous Digital Bureaucracy (PDH)

Due to the needs of a growing administration channel, the multiplexing action is agitated out in stages (hierarchy). Some akin bare depends on how abounding channels are actuality transmitted. Bureaucracy PDH circuitous namely:

30/E1/PDH 2M PCM bit amount 2Mbit / s

PDH 8M, 4 E1, with a bit amount of 8Mbit / s

PDH 34M, 16 E1, with a bit amount of 34Mbit / s

PDH 140m, 64 E1, with a bit amount of 140Mbit / s


Of the bureaucracy is accepted that there are complexities in the arrangement circuitous PDH carriage network. The accessory can not be anon memultiplex a arresting from the low acceleration anon into a college acceleration two levels aloft it (done footfall by step)

PDH Characteristics:

PDH has the afterward characteristics:

Plesiosinkron arresting due to the about-face alarm at anniversary level.

Multiplex $.25 per bit

Alignment of the bit amount of the anatomy is done by way of absolution Positive

Frame anatomy is altered at every date circuitous

Synchronization of ascribe signals do not acquaintance

Need demultiplexing action on the receiver ancillary

Weaknesses PDH Technology

In its appliance PDH technology has a weakness amid others:

PDH anatomy consistent from the use of point to point configuration, it is adamantine to do the Add / Drop and CrossConnect on PDH carriage networks

PDH circuitous systems application multilevel circuitous arrangement so that no simple and economical

The actuality of three altered accepted which is accepted CEPT (Europe), Japan and USA

A archaic operating arrangement and arrangement administration based on the PSTN.

Synchronous Digital Bureaucracy (SDH)

Due to the needs of a growing administration channel, the multiplexing action is agitated out in stages (hierarchy). Some akin bare depends on how abounding channels are actuality transmitted. Bureaucracy SDH multiplexing, namely:

STM-1 (Syncronous Carriage Module - 1)

STM-4 (Syncronous Carriage Module - 4)

STM-16 (Syncronous Carriage Module - 16)

STM-64 (Syncronous Carriage Module - 64)

Synchronous Digital Bureaucracy (SDH) is a circuitous bureaucracy based on ancillary manual and has a carriage anatomy advised to bear advice in a manual network. In SDH there is an affiliation of assorted types of altered equipment, which could accord new abandon in designing the network.

SDH Advantages:

SDH has advantages compared to PDH, namely:

International standards for the bit amount aloft 140 Mbit / s

Line cipher for transmsi connected and can be acclimated by a array of brands

Frame anatomy is identical at anniversary akin

With the arrow is again accustomed admission to assertive channels, so it is benign to the accomplishing of aberration address ADM

The actuality of aerial $.25

PDH can address signals

SDH Weaknesses:

In accession to the advantages, SDH additionally has a weakness, namely:

System was not simple / circuitous

If acclimated to approach the accommodation is bargain PDH signals

External Alarm Signal

Saturday, October 24, 2009

Regulator circuit using Op-Amp Diagram Schematic Picture-Service Manual

Regulator is a alternation of regulations or the voltage achievement from ability so that a allocation darinaik furnishings or voltage bead in net does not affect the voltage allowance ability to be so stable.

Regular ambit of regulators accept been acceptable if the ripple voltage is small, but there is a botheration of stability. If the voltage PLN acceleration /down, again the achievement voltage is additionally will be acceleration /donw. approved ambit of regulators, if the accepted of the larger, the dc voltage achievement is additionally down. For some applications this voltage change will actual disrupt.

Regulator circuit using Op-Amp Diagram
If the voltage V out avenue Ascending, voltage V in (-) additionally Ascending until this voltage is the aforementioned as the advertence voltage Vz. Likewise if the voltage V out decreases exit, for archetype because of accumulation accepted to the amount increases, Op-amp will advance adherence in the V advertence point z with the accepted IB to the transistor Q1 so that at any time in the Op-amp advance stability:
Regulator circuit using Op-Amp DiagramIgnore the VBE voltage transistor Q1 and mensubsitusi formula, acquired by algebraic relationships
Regulator circuit using Op-Amp Diagram
In the ambit of regulator Op-Amp of this achievement voltage can be adapted with the set of R1 and R2.

Regulator circuit using Op-Amp Diagram

Switching circuit +5 V regulator Diagram Picture - Service Manual

+5 V Switching ambit regulator LM2575-5.0 used. You can accomplish the abiding voltage by application the 3 terminal regulator like LM317. However, because the achievement electric accepted and the inputted electric accepted are about the same, the aberration amid the ascribe electric ability (The ascribe voltage x The ascribe electric current) and the achievement ability (The achievement voltage x The achievement current) is captivated as the calefaction with the regulator. Because it is, the ability is not good. In case of the switching regulator, it inputs alone the electric ability which is all-important to achievement from the ascribe by the switching operation. Because it is, there is little electric ability to absorb with the regulator and it is efficient.

Switching circuit +5 V regulator Diagram Picture

Arrangement Scheme +5 V Switching regulator

DC to DC footfall bottomward voltage regulators. Wide ascribe voltage 8Vdc to 40Vdc.

LM2575-3.3 (3.3Vdc output)

LM2575-5.0 (5VDC output)

LM2575-12 (12Vdc output)

LM2575-15 (15Vdc output)

LM2575-adj (1.23Vdc to 37Vdc output)

The switching regulator which introduces in this folio is the step-down blazon and is the one to get the achievement voltage which is lower than the ascribe voltage. As for the regulator which uses this time, the achievement is 5-V Fixation.

The switching regulator of the footfall up blazon can be fabricated the voltage which is college than the ascribe voltage.

Uses IC LM2575

The LM2575 alternation of regulators are caked chip circuits that accommodate all the alive functions for a step-down (buck) switching regulator, able of active a 1A amount with accomplished band and amount regulation. These accessories are accessible in anchored achievement Voltages of 3.3V, 5V, 12V, 15V, and an adjustable achievement version.

Requiring a minimum cardinal of alien components, these regulators are simple to use and accommodate centralized abundance advantage and a fixed-frequency oscillator.

The LM2575 alternation offers a high-efficiency backup for accepted three-terminal beeline regulators. It essentially reduces the admeasurement of the calefaction sink, and in abounding cases no calefaction bore is required.

A accepted alternation of inductors optimized for use with the LM2575 are accessible from several altered manufacturers. This affection abundantly simplifies the architecture of switch-mode ability supplies.

Other appearance accommodate a affirmed ± 4% altruism on achievement voltage aural defined ascribe and achievement Voltages amount conditions, and ± 10% on the oscillator frequency. Alien abeyance is included, featuring 50 μA (typical) standby current. The achievement about-face includes cycle-by-cycle accepted limiting, as able-bodied as thermal abeyance for abounding aegis beneath accountability conditions.

Car circuit Regulator Converter Wiring Diagram Manual

This is car regulator 12 VDC to 9 VDC converters ancillary for audio, playstation,DVD,etc... The regulator advised for 12DC to 9DC converters that we accompany to our architecture ambit . They are all able in Switch Mode Ability Supplies adapted output. We accept developed a alternation of DC-DC ability accumulation models alignment from 1 watt to 500 watts, which we congenital into the new ambassador of DC converters. We are additionally developing new areas whenever all-important to accommodated chump requirements. We can accommodate some custom articles that changes on the afterward articles and absolutely custom DC-DC, new products, such as DC Battery Backup Ability Supplies.

Car circuit Regulator Converter Wiring Diagram


Assemble the ambit on a acceptable affection PCB.

The Q1 ECG184 charge be army on calefaction sinks.

list Componet

C1: 1000uf/16v

C2: 100uf/16v

C3: 330nf

R1: 560 ohm, Resistor 1 watt

Z1: 9.1 Volt, diode zener

Q1: EGC184.